Methods Prohibited In Competition

If a Substance or Method is not defined in this list, please verify with your Anti-Doping Organization.

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  • M1. Manipulation of Blood and Blood Components

  • The following are prohibited:

    1. The administration or reintroduction of any quantity of autologous, allogenic (homologous) or heterologous blood or red blood cell products of any origin into the circulatory system.
    2. Artificially enhancing the uptake, transport or delivery of oxygen, including, but not limited to, perfluorochemicals, efaproxiral (RSR13) and modified haemoglobin products (e.g. haemoglobin-based blood substitutes, microencapsulated haemoglobin products), excluding supplemental oxygen.
    3. Any form of intravascular manipulation of the blood or blood components by physical or chemical means.
  • M2. Chemical and Physical Manipulation

  • The following are prohibited:

    1. Tampering, or attempting to tamper, in order to alter the integrity and validity of Samples collected during Doping Control. These include but are not limited to urine substitution and/or adulteration (e.g. proteases).
    2. Intravenous infusions and/or injections of more than 50 mL per 6 hour period except for those legitimately received in the course of hospital admissions or clinical investigations.
  • M3. Gene Doping

  • The following, with the potential to enhance sport performance, are prohibited:

    1. The transfer of polymers of nucleic acids or nucleic acid analogues;
    2. The use of normal or genetically modified cells.

If a Substance or Method is not found, please verify with your Anti-Doping Organization to ensure that this Substance or Method is not prohibited as a related Substance or Method that falls under an existing category.